February 2006
International Cyberinfrastructure: Activities Around the Globe
Marco A Raupp and Bruno Schulze, National Laboratory for Scientific Computing, LNCC
Michael Stanton and Nelson Simões, National Research and Education Network, RNP

HPC and Networking History

Brazil has a territorial extent of about 8.5 million km2, making it the fourth largest country in the world, with correspondingly large demands in order to reach all parts of the country. The federal constitutional order is similar to the USA, with 26 states and a Federal District around the national capital, Brasília. The history of academic HPC in Brazil began in 1990, based on the concept of government-funded regional centers open to universities and research institutes, as in Table 1, with seven such centers being established between 1992 and 1997. INPE formally joined the system only in 2002, contributing with its former production machine formerly dedicated to environmental sciences.

Internet technology had already been brought to Brazil by concerted initiatives by state governments in a number of the more populous states, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, coordinated nationally by the federal government through RNP. The first national IP backbone network in Brazil was launched by RNP in 1992 to serve the national academic and research community, and connected 11 cities 1. Since 1992, the national network run by RNP has evolved through four significant increases in capacity and usually also technology, where the fourth such change was initiated in November, 2005. Table 2 summarizes these changes. It is relevant to discuss here the Project GIGA testbed network (2004-) and the most recent national network upgrade initiated in 2005.

Center Comment
LNCC National Laboratory for Scientific Computing initially IBM SP2, later upgraded with SUN and SGI machines
UFRGS Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul initially Cray XMP and later upgraded to a Cray T90
UNICAMP State University of Campinas initially IBM SP2, later upgraded with SUN machines
UFMG Federal University of Minas Gerais initially IBM SP2, later upgraded with SUN machines
UFRJ Federal University of Rio de Janeiro initially CRAY, recently upgraded with SGI Altix machines
UFC Federal University of Ceara
INPE/CPTEC National Space Research Institute/
Climate and Weather Forecasting Center
initially NEC SX 4, later upgraded to a SX 6

Table 1. SINAPAD centers
Year Technology Link capacities Comment
2005 IP/WDM 2.5 and 10 Gbps IPÊ network core to 10 capitals; metro networks in 27 capitals
2003 IP/SDH 34, 155, 622 Mbps also: IP/WDM interstate gigabit testbed network (GIGA)
1999 IP/ATM, IP/FR VC ‹ 45 Mbps,
access ‹ 155 Mbps
RNP2 national network; testbed metro networks in 14 cities (ATM)
1995 ‹ 2 Mbps also: commercial IP deployed in Brazil
1992 Internet 9.6 and 64 kbps first IP network (RNP)
Table 2. Evolution of academic networking in Brazil

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5

Reference this article
Raupp, M.A., Schulze, B., Stanton, M., Simões, N. "Cyberinfrastructure for Multidisciplinary Science in Brazil," CTWatch Quarterly, Volume 2, Number 1, February 2006. http://www.ctwatch.org/quarterly/articles/2006/02/cyberinfrastructure-for-multidisciplinary-science-in-brazil/

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